Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) is a line of treatment suggested for patients suffering from Chronic Kidney Disease. This post shares information about peritoneal dialysis, its types, catheter placements, and complications associated with it.
Peritoneal dialysis: Overview
Peritoneal Dialysis is a method of cleaning the blood without the blood leaving the body. Clean fluid (dialysate) is run through a catheter into the peritoneal cavity. A thin membrane called the peritoneum, which lies inside of the abdomen. The peritoneum has tiny pores through which the waste products can pass from the bloodstream into the dialysate. When the dialysate is drained out through the catheter, the waste products are removed from the body at the same time.
The main advantage of PD is that it can be done at home or work place (as trained by the PD nurse / Clinical Manager / Nephrologist). The PD solution bags can be delivered directly to your home. Patients on PD are therefore very independent and need to visit the hospital once a month for a check-up, unlike Haemodialysis (HD) where patients have to visit the dialysis centre 2-3 times a week. Since Peritoneal dialysis is a continuous process, there are fewer dietary and fluid restrictions than on Haemodialysis. Patients can travel out of town and can do dialysis wherever they go with the prior information to the PD Nurse / Clinical Manager / Nephrologist.
There are two types of Peritoneal Dialysis.
CAPD (Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis): CAPD is done manually. The fluid is infused into the Peritoneal Cavity, and after staying there for a period of time, it is drained out into an empty bag. In CAPD, 3-4 bags are used during a 24-hour period. It takes 5 to 10 minutes for the fluid to fill in and 20 to 30 minutes for the fluid to drain out. The bag changes can be done at home or at work place (as trained by the PD nurse / Clinical Manager) There is complete freedom to carry out daily living routines between bag changes.
APD (Automated Peritoneal Dialysis): The patient is attached to a Cycler that cycles the fluid in and out of the abdomen while the patient is asleep, usually over an 8-to-12-hour period. Often, fluid is left in the abdomen during the day. This type of dialysis allows freedom from exchanges during the day, APD is mostly used for patients who for some reason would find it difficult to do exchanges (bag changes) during the day.
In both types, dialysate fluid comes in High grade Medical bags which are stored at the patient’s home.
How to prepare for peritoneal dialysis Catheter insertion:
A patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis Catheter insertion (Surgery) should not drink or eat anything after midnight before acquiring a peritoneal dialysis catheter. Especially those who will be undergoing local anesthesia for catheter insertion.
Throughout the surgery:
The surgery procedure may differ based on the process the doctor considers. The general steps included in the surgery:
- Cleaning up of the abdominal area before surgery.
- Making a insertion typically a bit below and to the left or right of the belly button to insert the catheter.
The patient has to undergo training to practice Peritoneal Dialysis procedure. This training is given by the PD Nurse / Clinical Manager in the hospital following all the guidelines for 4 – 6 days. The Patient and the attendant will be taught about maintaining hygiene, setting up the PD room for the procedure, how to connect / disconnect and discard the tubing and bags. Patients opting for APD are taught to practice exchanges without the machine in the unfortunate instances of machine failure or a power outage occurs. The patient can also choose to include a family member or attendant who is also the primary care giver to the patient for the training session.
Practicing an exchange:
- All SOP will be trained by the PD Nurse / Clinical Manager at the PD Unit / Hospital
- Perform the exchange procedure stepwise by following the aseptic techniques.
Nutritional diet changes:
A person undergoing dialysis may require enough nutritional supplements to substitute those they lack due to avoidance of high-potassium foods. In Peritoneal Dialysis protein are also extracted as a result, the patient may need to consume adequate quantities of protein to maintain proper protein balance in the body. The patient should consult his/her Doctor / Dietician for a proper diet.
Complications in Peritoneal Dialysis:
One of the most common complications linked with Peritoneal Dialysis is Peritonitis, which is inflammation of the peritoneum. It mainly occurs when infectious bacteria enter into the peritoneum. This condition may cause fever, abdominal pain and turbid effluent. The patient should contact his/her doctor immediately if they observe any of these symptoms so that proper treatment and care is provided immediately. Following the training provided properly and maintaining proper hygiene reduces the chances of Peritonitis.
This was a brief introduction to Peritoneal Dialysis about the types of PD, training procedures and its potential complications. PD is a popular form of dialysis because it allows complete freedom of daily routine and life to the patient. Some Peritoneal Dialysis solution / equipment manufacturers in India make the home dialysis option easier by offering clinical services at home along with their solution and equipment.
Looking for Peritoneal Dialysis equipment? Get in touch with Mitra Industries.
Mitra Industries is one of India’s most reputed health care manufacturers. Our motto is to manufacture high quality life care products and services accessible for everyone.
Mitra Industries Pvt. Ltd. is the only manufacturer of Peritoneal Dialysis products and equipment in India. Our strong focus in R & D has made us the leaders in Peritoneal Dialysis technology. By developing devices from the component level, we are able to provide PD products and equipment in a rapid development environment. Coupled with a focus on quality and speed to market, our solutions exceed market expectations for performance and value.
Mitra Industries offers an effortless option by providing CAPD and APD equipment supported by pan-India 24×7 Clinical services for people choosing Peritoneal Dialysis at home.